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Maintenance of XML Elements

 

Locating an Element

 

Introduction

In some cases, you may want to perform an operation on an existing and particular node. For example, you may want to change the value of a node, you may want to add a new child node to an existing node, etc. Before taking any of these actions, you must be able to locate or identify the desired element.

Locating an element consists of looking for a particular node among the nodes. To do this, you must start somewhere. Obviously, the first node you can identify is the root. Once you get the root, you can then get a collection of its children. After getting a collection of the children of the root, you can locate a node in the collection. If the node you are looking for is a child of that first collection, you can then get a collection of the child nodes of that node and proceed.

Fortunately, the System.Xml namespace provides various means of looking for a node in an XML file.

Practical Learning: Introducing Element Location 

  1. Start Microsoft Visual C#
  2. Create a Windows Application named GeorgetownDryCleaner4
  3. In the Solution Explorer, right-click Form1.cs and click Rename
  4. Type Central.cs and press Enter
  5. Design the form as follows:
     
    Georgetown Cleaning Services
     
    Control Name Text Additional Properties
    GroupBox GroupBox   Order Identification  
    Label Label   &Receipt #:  
    TextBox TextBox txtReceiptNumber 1000 TextAlign: Right
    Button Button btnOpen Open  
    Button Button btnNewCleaningOrder New Cleaning Order  
    Label Label   Customer Name:  
    TextBox TextBox txtCustomerName    
    Label Label   Customer Phone:  
    MaskedTextBox TextBox txtCustomerPhone   Mask: (999) 000-0000
    Label Label   Date Left:  
    DateTimePicker DateTimePicker dtpDateLeft    
    Label Label   Time Left:  
    DateTimePicker Date Time Picker dtpTimeLeft   Format: Time
    Label Label   Date Expected:  
    DateTimePicker DateTimePicker dtpDateExpected    
    Label Label   Time Expected:  
    DateTimePicker DateTimePicker dtpTimeExpected   Format: Time
    Label Label   Order &Status:  
    ComboBox ComboBox cbxOrderStatus    
    Label Label   D&ate Picked Up:  
    DateTimePicker DateTimePicker dtpDatePickedUp    
    Label Label   Time Pic&kep Up:  
    DateTimePicker DateTimePicker dtpTimePickedUp    
    GroupBox GroupBox   Order Processing  
    Label Label   Item Type  
    Label Label   Unit Price  
    Label Label   Qty  
    Label Label   Sub Total  
    Label Label   Shirts  
    TextBox TextBox txtShirtsUnitPrice 1.25 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtShirtsQuantity 0 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtShirtsSubTotal 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    Label Label   Pants  
    TextBox TextBox txtPantsUnitPrice 1.95 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtPantsQuantity   TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtPantsSubTotal 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    ComboBox ComboBox cbxItem1Name None Items:
    None
    Women Suit
    Dress
    Regular Skirt
    Skirt With Hook
    Men's Suit 2Pc
    Men's Suit 3Pc
    Sweaters
    Silk Shirt
    Tie
    Coat
    Jacket
    Swede
    TextBox TextBox txtItem1UnitPrice 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem1Quantity 0 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem1SubTotal 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    ComboBox ComboBox cbxItem2Name None Items:
    None
    Women Suit
    Dress
    Regular Skirt
    Skirt With Hook
    Men's Suit 2Pc
    Men's Suit 3Pc
    Sweaters
    Silk Shirt
    Tie
    Coat
    Jacket
    Swede
    TextBox TextBox txtItem2UnitPrice 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem2Quantity 0 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem2SubTotal 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    ComboBox ComboBox cbxItem3Name None Items:
    None
    Women Suit
    Dress
    Regular Skirt
    Skirt With Hook
    Men's Suit 2Pc
    Men's Suit 3Pc
    Sweaters
    Silk Shirt
    Tie
    Coat
    Jacket
    Swede
    TextBox TextBox txtItem3UnitPrice 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem3Quantity 0 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem3SubTotal 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    ComboBox ComboBox cbxItem4Name None Items:
    None
    Women Suit
    Dress
    Regular Skirt
    Skirt With Hook
    Men's Suit 2Pc
    Men's Suit 3Pc
    Sweaters
    Silk Shirt
    Tie
    Coat
    Jacket
    Swede
    TextBox TextBox txtItem4UnitPrice 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem4Quantity 0 TextAlign: Right
    TextBox TextBox txtItem4SubTotal 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    GroupBox GroupBox   Order Summary  
    Label Label   Cleaning Total:  
    TextBox TextBox txtCleaningTotal 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    Label Label   Tax Rate:  
    TextBox TextBox txtTaxRate 7.75 TextAlign: Right
    Label Label   %  
    Label Label   Tax Amount:  
    TextBox TextBox txtTaxAmount 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    Label Label   Net Total:  
    TextBox TextBox txtNetPrice 0.00 TextAlign: Right
    Button Button btnPrint Print...  
    Button Button btnPrintPreview Print Preview...  
    Button Button btnClose Close  
  6. Double-click the Time Left control and implement its ValueChanged event as follows:
     
    private void dtpTimeLeft_ValueChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        DateTime dateLeft = this.dtpDateLeft.Value;
        DateTime timeLeft = this.dtpTimeLeft.Value;
    
        DateTime time9AM = new DateTime(timeLeft.Year, timeLeft.Month,
                                        timeLeft.Day, 9, 0, 0);
    
        // If the customer leaves clothes before 9AM...
        if (timeLeft <= time9AM)
        {
            // ... then they should be ready the same day after 5PM
            this.dtpDateExpected.Value = dateLeft;
            this.dtpTimeExpected.Value = new DateTime(dateLeft.Year,
                                                      dateLeft.Month,
    					dateLeft.Day, 17, 0, 0);
        }
        else
        {
            // If the clothes were left after 9AM,
            // then they will be available
    	// the following business morning at 8AM
            // If the following day is Sunday,
            // then they will be ready the following Monday
            if (dateLeft.DayOfWeek == DayOfWeek.Saturday)
            {
                dtpDateExpected.Value = dateLeft.AddDays(2.00D);
                dtpTimeExpected.Value = new DateTime(dateLeft.Year,
                                                     dateLeft.Month,
    					dateLeft.Day + 2, 8, 0, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                dtpDateExpected.Value = new DateTime(dateLeft.Year,
                                                     dateLeft.Month,
    						 dateLeft.Day + 1);
                dtpTimeExpected.Value = new DateTime(dateLeft.Year,
                                                     dateLeft.Month,
    					dateLeft.Day + 1, 8, 0, 0);
            }
        }
    }
  7. Return to the form  
  8. From the Printing section of the Toolbox, click PrintDocument and click the form
  9. While the new control is still selected, in the Properties window, click the Properties button, click (Name), type docPrint and press Enter
  10. Under the form, double-click docPrint and implement its event as follows:
     
    private void docPrint_PrintPage(object sender, 
    	System.Drawing.Printing.PrintPageEventArgs e)
    {
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 2), 60, 90, 720, 90);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 60, 93, 720, 93);
    
        string strDisplay = "Georgetown Cleaning Services";
        System.Drawing.Font fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 28,
                    FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(strDisplay, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 120, 100);
    
        strDisplay = "Customer Cleaning Order";
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman", 18,
                    FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(strDisplay, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 220, 150);
    
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 60, 184, 720, 184);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 2), 60, 188, 720, 188);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman", 12,
                    FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("", fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 80, 200);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman", 12,
                    FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Customer Identification:  ", fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 100, 220);
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman", 12,
                    FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtCustomerName.Text + "  -  " +
                                      txtCustomerPhone.Text, fntString,
                                      Brushes.Black, 300, 220); ;
    
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 100, 240, 700, 240);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Date Left:        ", fntString,
                                      Brushes.Black, 100, 260);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
    
        e.Graphics.DrawString(dtpDateLeft.Value.ToString("D"), fntString,
                                      Brushes.Black, 300, 260);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 100, 280, 700, 280);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Time Left: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes.Black, 500, 260);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(dtpTimeLeft.Value.ToString("t"), fntString,
                                      Brushes.Black, 620, 260);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Date Expected:    ", fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 100, 300);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(dtpDateExpected.Value.ToString("D"),
    			  fntString, Brushes.Black, 300, 300);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Time Expected: ", fntString,
                                      Brushes.Black, 500, 300);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(dtpTimeExpected.Value.ToString("t"),
    			  fntString, Brushes.Black, 620, 300);
    
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 2), 100, 320, 700, 320);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Item Type",
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 140, 350);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Unit Price",
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 300, 350);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Quantity",
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 405, 350);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Sub-Total",
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 500, 350);
    
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 2), 140, 370, 640, 370);
    
        StringFormat fmtString = new StringFormat();
        fmtString.Alignment = StringAlignment.Far;
    
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Shirts",
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 150, 380);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtUnitPriceShirts.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 350, 380, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtQuantityShirts.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 440, 380, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtSubTotalShirts.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 550, 380, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 140, 400, 640, 400);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Pants",
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 150, 410);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtUnitPricePants.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 350, 410, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtQuantityPants.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 440, 410, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtSubTotalPants.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 550, 410, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 140, 430, 640, 430);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(cbxItem1.Text,
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 150, 440);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtUnitPriceItem1.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 350, 440, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtQuantityItem1.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 440, 440, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtSubTotalItem1.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 550, 440, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 140, 460, 640, 460);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(cbxItem2.Text,
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 150, 470);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtUnitPriceItem2.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 350, 470, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtQuantityItem2.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 440, 470, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtSubTotalItem2.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 550, 470, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 140, 490, 640, 490);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(cbxItem3.Text,
                                      fntString, Brushes.Black, 150, 500);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtUnitPriceItem3.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 350, 500, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtQuantityItem3.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 440, 500, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtSubTotalItem3.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 550, 500, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1), 140, 520, 640, 520);
    
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(cbxItem4.Text,
                    fntString, Brushes.Black, 150, 530);
        fntString = new Font("Times New Roman", 12, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtUnitPriceItem4.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 350, 530, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtQuantityItem4.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 440, 530, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtSubTotalItem4.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 550, 530, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 2), 140, 550, 640, 550);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman", 12,
    					FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Order Summary", fntString,
                              Brushes.Black, 260, 600);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 2), 220, 620, 560, 620);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Cleaning Total:", fntString,
                              Brushes.Black, 260, 630);
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtCleaningTotal.Text, fntString,
                              Brushes.Black, 440, 630, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1),
    			220, 650, 520, 650);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Tax Rate:", fntString,
                              Brushes.Black, 260, 660);
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtTaxRate.Text, fntString,
                              Brushes.Black, 440, 660, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1),
    			220, 680, 520, 680);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Tax Amount:", fntString,
                              Brushes.Black, 260, 690);
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtTaxAmount.Text, fntString,
                    	  Brushes.Black, 440, 690, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 1),
    			220, 710, 520, 710);
    
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Bold);
        e.Graphics.DrawString("Net Price:", fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 260, 720);
        fntString = new System.Drawing.Font("Times New Roman",
    					10, FontStyle.Regular);
        e.Graphics.DrawString(txtNetPrice.Text, fntString,
                    Brushes.Black, 440, 720, fmtString);
        e.Graphics.DrawLine(new Pen(Color.Black, 2),
    			200, 740, 560, 740);
    }
  11. Return to the form
  12. From the Printing section of the Toolbox, click PrintDialog and click the form
  13. In the Properties window, change its Name to dlgPrint
  14. Still in the Properties windows, set its Document property to docPrint
  15. On the main menu of the form, click File and double-click Print
  16. Implement the event as follows:
     
    private void mnuFilePrint_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        if (dlgPrint.ShowDialog() == DialogResult.OK)
            docPrint.Print();
    }
  17. Return to the form
  18. From the Printing section of the Toolbox, click PrintPreviewDialog and click the form
  19. In the Properties window, change its Name to dlgPrintPreview
  20. Still in the Properties windows, set its Document property to docPrint
  21. On the main menu of the form, click File and double-click Print Preview
  22. Implement the event as follows:
     
    private void mnuFilePrintPreview_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        dlgPrintPreview.ShowDialog();
    }
  23. Save the file

Locating an Element Using its Index

Consider the following XML file named videos.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
    <video>
	<title>The Distinguished Gentleman</title>
	<director>Jonathan Lynn</director>
	<length>112 Minutes</length>
	<format>DVD</format>
	<rating>R</rating>
    </video>
    <video>
	<title>Her Alibi</title>
	<director>Bruce Beresford</director>
	<length>94 Minutes</length>
	<format>DVD</format>
	<rating>PG-13</rating>
    </video>
    <video>
	<title>The Day After Tomorrow</title>
	<director>Roland Emmerich</director>
	<length>124 Minutes</length>
	<format>DVD</format>
	<rating>PG-13</rating>
    </video>
    <video>
	<title>Other People's Money</title>
	<director>Alan Brunstein</director>
	<length>114 Minutes</length>
	<format>VHS</format>
	<rating>PG-13</rating>
    </video>
</videos>

In Lesson 8, we saw that the XmlNodeList class was equipped with both a method named Item and an indexed property (named Item). Their syntaxes are:

public abstract XmlNode Item(int index);
public virtual XmlNode this[int i] { get; }

These two members allow you to access an element based on its index. Here are examples:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.IO;
using System.Xml;

namespace VideoCollection1
{
    public partial class Exercise : Form
    {
        public Exercise()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            string Filename = "videos.xml";
            XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

            if (File.Exists(Filename))
            {
                xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

                XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;
                XmlNodeList lstVideos = elmRoot.ChildNodes;

                MessageBox.Show(lstVideos[1].InnerText);

                MessageBox.Show(lstVideos.Item(3).InnerXml);
            }
        }
    }
}

This would produce:

You can use this characteristic to locate a node. Because XML is very flexible with the names (you can have two child nodes that have the same name) and values (you can have two child nodes that have the same value) of nodes, when creating an XML file, it is your responsibility to create a scheme that would eventually allow you to uniquely identify each element.

Practical Learning: Locating an Element Using its Index

  1. On the form, double-click the New Cleaning Order button and implement its event as follows:
     
    private void btnNewCleaningOrder_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        int ReceiptNumber = 1000;
        XmlDocument docCleaningOrders = new XmlDocument();
        Directory.CreateDirectory(@"C:\Georgetown Cleaning Services");
        string Filename =
                    @"C:\Georgetown Cleaning Services\cleaningorders.xml";
    
        // If some payments were previously made
        if (File.Exists(Filename))
        {
            // Open the payments.xml file
            docCleaningOrders.Load(Filename);
    
            // Locate the root element
            XmlElement elmCleaningOrder =
                        docCleaningOrders.DocumentElement;
            // Get a list of the child nodes
            XmlNodeList lstCleaningOrders =
                        elmCleaningOrder.ChildNodes;
    
            // Get the last student number
             ReceiptNumber =
                     int.Parse(lstCleaningOrders[lstCleaningOrders.Count
                                                - 1].FirstChild.InnerText);
        }
    
        txtReceiptNumber.Text = (ReceiptNumber + 1).ToString();
    
        txtCustomerName.Text = "";
        txtCustomerPhone.Text = "";
        dtpDateLeft.Value = DateTime.Today;
        dtpTimeLeft.Value = DateTime.Today;
        dtpDateExpected.Value = DateTime.Today;
        dtpTimeExpected.Value = DateTime.Today;
    
        cbxOrderStatus.Text = "Not Yet Ready";
        dtpDatePickedUp.Value = DateTime.Today;
        dtpTimePickedUp.Value = DateTime.Today;
    
        txtShirtsUnitPrice.Text = "1.25";
        txtShirtsQuantity.Text = "0";
        txtShirtsSubTotal.Text = "0.00";
        txtPantsUnitPrice.Text = "1.95";
        txtPantsQuantity.Text = "0";
        txtPantsSubTotal.Text = "0.00";
        cbxItem1Name.Text = "None";
        txtItem1UnitPrice.Text = "0.00";
        txtItem1Quantity.Text = "0";
        txtItem1SubTotal.Text = "0.00";
        cbxItem2Name.Text = "None";
        txtItem2UnitPrice.Text = "0.00";
        txtItem2Quantity.Text = "0";
        txtItem2SubTotal.Text = "0.00";
        cbxItem3Name.Text = "None";
        txtItem3UnitPrice.Text = "0.00";
        txtItem3Quantity.Text = "0";
        txtItem3SubTotal.Text = "0.00";
        cbxItem4Name.Text = "None";
        txtItem4UnitPrice.Text = "0.00";
        txtItem4Quantity.Text = "0";
        txtItem4SubTotal.Text = "0.00";
    
        txtCleaningTotal.Text = "0.00";
        txtTaxRate.Text = "7.75";
        txtTaxAmount.Text = "0.00";
        txtCleaningTotal.Text = "0.00";
    
        txtCustomerName.Focus();
    }
  2. Return to the form and double-click an unoccupied area of its body
  3. Implement its event as follows:
     
    private void Central_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        btnNewCleaningOrder_Click(sender, e);
    }
  4. Save the file

Locating an Element Using its Name

To assist you with locating the first child node of a node, the XmlNode class is equipped with an indexed property (named Item) overloaded with two versions. One of the versions is declared as follows:

public virtual XmlElement this[string name] { get; }

This indexed property takes the name of a node as argument. After the property has been called, the parser checks the child nodes of the element on which the property was applied. If the parser finds a node with that name, it returns it as an XmlElement object. Here is an example:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;
        XmlNodeList lstVideos = elmRoot.ChildNodes;

        MessageBox.Show(lstVideos[1]["director"].InnerText);

        MessageBox.Show(lstVideos.Item(3)["format"].InnerXml);
    }
}

Based on the videos.xml file we had earlier, this would produce:

If the node has more than one child with the same name, then it would return the first child with that name. You can use this characteristic to look for, or locate, an element.

Practical Learning: Locating an Element Using its Name

  1. On the form, double-click the Open button and implement the event as follows:
     
    private void btnOpen_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        string Filename =
                @"C:\Georgetown Cleaning Services\cleaningorders.xml";
        XmlDocument docCleaningOrders = new XmlDocument();
    
        if( File.Exists(Filename) )
        {
            bool found = false;
            docCleaningOrders.Load(Filename);
            XmlElement elmCleaningOrder =
                        docCleaningOrders.DocumentElement;
            XmlNodeList lstCleaningOrders =
                        elmCleaningOrder.ChildNodes;
    
            for (int i = 0; i < lstCleaningOrders.Count; i++)
            {
                if (lstCleaningOrders[i].FirstChild.InnerText ==
                    txtReceiptNumber.Text)
                {
                    found = true;
    
                    txtCustomerName.Text =
                        lstCleaningOrders[i]["CustomerName"].InnerText;
                    txtCustomerPhone.Text =
                        lstCleaningOrders[i]["CustomerPhone"].InnerText;
                    dtpDateLeft.Value =
                        DateTime.Parse(lstCleaningOrders[i]["DateLeft"].InnerText);
                    dtpTimeLeft.Value =
                        DateTime.Parse(lstCleaningOrders[i]["TimeLeft"].InnerText);
                    dtpDateExpected.Value =
                        DateTime.Parse(lstCleaningOrders[i]["DateExpected"].InnerText);
                    dtpTimeExpected.Value =
                        DateTime.Parse(lstCleaningOrders[i]["TimeExpected"].InnerText);
    
                    cbxOrderStatus.Text =
                        lstCleaningOrders[i]["OrderStatus"].InnerText;
                    dtpDatePickedUp.Value =
                        DateTime.Parse(lstCleaningOrders[i]["DatePickedUp"].InnerText);
                    dtpTimePickedUp.Value =
                        DateTime.Parse(lstCleaningOrders[i]["TimePickedUp"].InnerText);
    
                    txtShirtsUnitPrice.Text =
                                lstCleaningOrders[i]["ShirtsUnitPrice"].InnerText;
                    txtShirtsQuantity.Text =
                                lstCleaningOrders[i]["ShirtsQuantity"].InnerText;
                    txtShirtsSubTotal.Text =
                                lstCleaningOrders[i]["ShirtsSubTotal"].InnerText;
                    txtPantsUnitPrice.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["PantsUnitPrice"].InnerText;
                    txtPantsQuantity.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["PantsQuantity"].InnerText;
                    txtPantsSubTotal.Text =
    		     lstCleaningOrders[i]["PantsSubTotal"].InnerText;
    
                    cbxItem1Name.Text = lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item1Name"].InnerText;
                            txtItem1UnitPrice.Text =
    		lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item1UnitPrice"].InnerText;
                            txtItem1Quantity.Text =
    		lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item1Quantity"].InnerText;
                            txtItem1SubTotal.Text =
    		lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item1SubTotal"].InnerText;
    
                    cbxItem2Name.Text = lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item2Name"].InnerText;
                    txtItem2UnitPrice.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item2UnitPrice"].InnerText;
                    txtItem2Quantity.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item2Quantity"].InnerText;
                    txtItem2SubTotal.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item2SubTotal"].InnerText;
    
                    cbxItem3Name.Text = lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item3Name"].InnerText;
                    txtItem3UnitPrice.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item3UnitPrice"].InnerText;
                    txtItem3Quantity.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item3Quantity"].InnerText;
                    txtItem3SubTotal.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item3SubTotal"].InnerText;
    
                    cbxItem4Name.Text = lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item4Name"].InnerText;
                    txtItem4UnitPrice.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item4UnitPrice"].InnerText;
                    txtItem4Quantity.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item4Quantity"].InnerText;
                    txtItem4SubTotal.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["Item4SubTotal"].InnerText;
    
                    txtCleaningTotal.Text =
    			    lstCleaningOrders[i]["CleaningTotal"].InnerText;
                    txtTaxRate.Text = lstCleaningOrders[i]["TaxRate"].InnerText;
                    txtTaxAmount.Text = lstCleaningOrders[i]["TaxAmount"].InnerText;
                    txtNetPrice.Text = lstCleaningOrders[i]["NetPrice"].InnerText;
                    break;
                }
            }
    
            if (found == false)
                MessageBox.Show("There is no cleaning order with that receipt number");
        }
        else
            MessageBox.Show("There is no file that holds the list of cleaning orders");
    }
    
    private void SaveCleaningOrder()
    {
        // This variable will be used to know
        // if the receipt number already exists in the file
        bool ReceiptFound = false;
                
        // This variable will be used to know whether we are creating
        // a new cleaning order or if we are only updating
        // an existing cleaning order
        XmlNode ExistingCleaningOrder = null;
                
        int ReceiptNumber = int.Parse(txtReceiptNumber.Text);
        // We will need a reference to the DOM
        XmlDocument docCleaningOrders = new XmlDocument();
        // Here is the XML file that holds the cleaning orders
        string Filename =
                    @"C:\Georgetown Cleaning Services\cleaningorders.xml";
    
        // If there is no receipt number, don't do anything
        if (txtReceiptNumber.Text.Length == 0)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("The cleaning order cannot be created " +
                            "because the receipt number is missing");
            return;
        }
    
        // If the file exists,...
        if (File.Exists(Filename))
        {
            // then open it
            docCleaningOrders.Load(Filename);
            XmlElement elmCleaningOrder = docCleaningOrders.DocumentElement;
            XmlNodeList lstCleaningOrders = elmCleaningOrder.ChildNodes;
    
            for (int i = 0; i < lstCleaningOrders.Count; i++)
            {
                XmlNode node = lstCleaningOrders.Item(i);
    
                if (lstCleaningOrders.Item(i).FirstChild.InnerText ==
                    txtReceiptNumber.Text)
                {
                    ReceiptFound = true;
                    ExistingCleaningOrder = lstCleaningOrders[i];
                    ReceiptNumber =
                        int.Parse(ExistingCleaningOrder["ReceiptNumber"].InnerText);
                    break;
                }
            }
    
            if (ReceiptFound == true)
            {
                ExistingCleaningOrder["CustomerName"].InnerText =
                            txtCustomerName.Text;
                ExistingCleaningOrder["CustomerPhone"].InnerText =
                            txtCustomerPhone.Text;
    
                ExistingCleaningOrder["DateLeft"].InnerText =
                            dtpDateLeft.Value.ToString("d");
                ExistingCleaningOrder["TimeLeft"].InnerText =
                            dtpTimeLeft.Value.ToString("t");
                ExistingCleaningOrder["DateExpected"].InnerText =
                            dtpDateExpected.Value.ToString("d");
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["TimeExpected"].InnerText =
                            dtpTimeExpected.Value.ToString("t");
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["OrderStatus"].InnerText =
                            cbxOrderStatus.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["DatePickedUp"].InnerText =
                            dtpDatePickedUp.Value.ToString("d");
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["TimePickedUp"].InnerText =
                            dtpTimePickedUp.Value.ToString("t");
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["ShirtsUnitPrice"].InnerText =
                            txtShirtsUnitPrice.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["ShirtsQuantity"].InnerText =
                            txtShirtsQuantity.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["ShirtsSubTotal"].InnerText =
                            txtShirtsSubTotal.Text;
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["PantsUnitPrice"].InnerText =
                            txtPantsUnitPrice.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["PantsQuantity"].InnerText =
                            txtPantsQuantity.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["PantsSubTotal"].InnerText =
                            txtPantsSubTotal.Text;
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item1Name"].InnerText =
                            cbxItem1Name.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item1UnitPrice"].InnerText =
                            txtItem1UnitPrice.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item1Quantity"].InnerText =
                            txtItem1Quantity.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item1SubTotal"].InnerText =
                            txtItem1SubTotal.Text;
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item2Name"].InnerText =
                            cbxItem2Name.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item2UnitPrice"].InnerText =
                            txtItem2UnitPrice.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item2Quantity"].InnerText =
                            txtItem2Quantity.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item2SubTotal"].InnerText =
                            txtItem2SubTotal.Text;
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item3Name"].InnerText =
                            cbxItem3Name.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item3UnitPrice"].InnerText =
                            txtItem3UnitPrice.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item3Quantity"].InnerText =
                            txtItem3Quantity.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item3SubTotal"].InnerText =
                            txtItem3SubTotal.Text;
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item4Name"].InnerText =
                            cbxItem4Name.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item4UnitPrice"].InnerText =
                            txtItem4UnitPrice.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item4Quantity"].InnerText =
                            txtItem4Quantity.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["Item4SubTotal"].InnerText =
                            txtItem4SubTotal.Text;
    
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["CleaningTotal"].InnerText =
                            txtCleaningTotal.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["TaxRate"].InnerText =
                            txtTaxRate.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["TaxAmount"].InnerText =
                            txtTaxAmount.Text;
                        ExistingCleaningOrder["NetPrice"].InnerText =
                            txtNetPrice.Text;
                    }
                    else // The receipt number was not found. So, create a new cleaning order
                    {
                        XmlElement nodRoot = docCleaningOrders.DocumentElement;
                        XmlElement elmXML =
                            docCleaningOrders.CreateElement("CleaningOrder");
    
                        string strNewCleaningOrder =
                            "<ReceiptNumber>" + txtReceiptNumber.Text +
                            "</ReceiptNumber>" + "<CustomerName>" +
                            txtCustomerName.Text + "</CustomerName>" +
                            "<CustomerPhone>" + txtCustomerPhone.Text +
                            "</CustomerPhone>" + "<DateLeft>" +
                            dtpDateLeft.Value.ToString("d") + "</DateLeft>" +
                            "<TimeLeft>" + dtpTimeLeft.Value.ToString("t") +
                            "</TimeLeft>" + "<DateExpected>" +
                            dtpDateExpected.Value.ToString("d") +
                            "</DateExpected>" + "<TimeExpected>" +
                            dtpTimeExpected.Value.ToString("t") +
                            "</TimeExpected>" + "<OrderStatus>" +
                            cbxOrderStatus.Text + "</OrderStatus>" +
                            "<DatePickedUp>" + dtpDatePickedUp.Value.ToString("d") +
                            "</DatePickedUp>" + "<TimePickedUp>" +
                            dtpTimePickedUp.Value.ToString("t") +
                            "</TimePickedUp>" + "<ShirtsUnitPrice>" +
                            txtShirtsUnitPrice.Text + "</ShirtsUnitPrice>" +
                            "<ShirtsQuantity>" + txtShirtsQuantity.Text +
                            "</ShirtsQuantity>" + "<ShirtsSubTotal>" +
                            txtShirtsSubTotal.Text + "</ShirtsSubTotal>" +
                            "<PantsUnitPrice>" + txtPantsUnitPrice.Text +
                            "</PantsUnitPrice>" + "<PantsQuantity>" +
                            txtPantsQuantity.Text + "</PantsQuantity>" +
                            "<PantsSubTotal>" + txtPantsSubTotal.Text +
                            "</PantsSubTotal>" + "<Item1Name>" +
                            cbxItem1Name.Text + "</Item1Name>" +
                            "<Item1UnitPrice>" + txtItem1UnitPrice.Text +
                            "</Item1UnitPrice>" + "<Item1Quantity>" +
                            txtItem1Quantity.Text + "</Item1Quantity>" +
                            "<Item1SubTotal>" + txtItem1SubTotal.Text +
                            "</Item1SubTotal>" + "<Item2Name>" +
                            cbxItem2Name.Text + "</Item2Name>" +
                            "<Item2UnitPrice>" + txtItem2UnitPrice.Text +
                            "</Item2UnitPrice>" + "<Item2Quantity>" +
                            txtItem2Quantity.Text + "</Item2Quantity>" +
                            "<Item2SubTotal>" + txtItem2SubTotal.Text +
                            "</Item2SubTotal>" + "<Item3Name>" +
                            cbxItem3Name.Text + "</Item3Name>" +
                            "<Item3UnitPrice>" + txtItem3UnitPrice.Text +
                            "</Item3UnitPrice>" + "<Item3Quantity>" +
                            txtItem3Quantity.Text + "</Item3Quantity>" +
                            "<Item3SubTotal>" + txtItem3SubTotal.Text +
                            "</Item3SubTotal>" + "<Item4Name>" +
                            cbxItem4Name.Text + "</Item4Name>" +
                            "<Item4UnitPrice>" + txtItem4UnitPrice.Text +
                            "</Item4UnitPrice>" + "<Item4Quantity>" +
                            txtItem4Quantity.Text + "</Item4Quantity>" +
                            "<Item4SubTotal>" + txtItem4SubTotal.Text +
                            "</Item4SubTotal>" + "<CleaningTotal>" +
                            txtCleaningTotal.Text + "</CleaningTotal>" +
                            "<TaxRate>" + txtTaxRate.Text + "</TaxRate>" +
                            "<TaxAmount>" + txtTaxAmount.Text + "</TaxAmount>" +
                            "<NetPrice>" + txtNetPrice.Text + "</NetPrice>";
                        
                        elmXML.InnerXml = strNewCleaningOrder;
                        docCleaningOrders.DocumentElement.AppendChild(elmXML);
                    }
    
                    // docCleaningOrders.Save(Filename);
                }
                // If there is no such a file, prepare to create it
                else //if (!File.Exists(Filename))
                {
                    docCleaningOrders.LoadXml("<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"utf-8\"?>" +
                                              "<CleaningOrders></CleaningOrders>");
    
                    XmlElement nodRoot = docCleaningOrders.DocumentElement;
                    XmlElement elmXML = docCleaningOrders.CreateElement("CleaningOrder");
                    string strNewCleaningOrder =
                            "<ReceiptNumber>" + txtReceiptNumber.Text +
                            "</ReceiptNumber>" + "<CustomerName>" +
                            txtCustomerName.Text + "</CustomerName>" +
                            "<CustomerPhone>" + txtCustomerPhone.Text +
                            "</CustomerPhone>" + "<DateLeft>" +
                            dtpDateLeft.Value.ToString("d") + "</DateLeft>" +
                            "<TimeLeft>" + dtpTimeLeft.Value.ToString("t") +
                            "</TimeLeft>" + "<DateExpected>" +
                            dtpDateExpected.Value.ToString("d") +
                            "</DateExpected>" + "<TimeExpected>" +
                            dtpTimeExpected.Value.ToString("t") +
                            "</TimeExpected>" + "<OrderStatus>" +
                            cbxOrderStatus.Text + "</OrderStatus>" +
                            "<DatePickedUp>" + dtpDatePickedUp.Value.ToString("d") +
                            "</DatePickedUp>" + "<TimePickedUp>" +
                            dtpTimePickedUp.Value.ToString("t") +
                            "</TimePickedUp>" + "<ShirtsUnitPrice>" +
                            txtShirtsUnitPrice.Text + "</ShirtsUnitPrice>" +
                            "<ShirtsQuantity>" + txtShirtsQuantity.Text +
                            "</ShirtsQuantity>" + "<ShirtsSubTotal>" +
                            txtShirtsSubTotal.Text + "</ShirtsSubTotal>" +
                            "<PantsUnitPrice>" + txtPantsUnitPrice.Text +
                            "</PantsUnitPrice>" + "<PantsQuantity>" +
                            txtPantsQuantity.Text + "</PantsQuantity>" +
                            "<PantsSubTotal>" + txtPantsSubTotal.Text +
                            "</PantsSubTotal>" + "<Item1Name>" +
                            cbxItem1Name.Text + "</Item1Name>" +
                            "<Item1UnitPrice>" + txtItem1UnitPrice.Text +
                            "</Item1UnitPrice>" + "<Item1Quantity>" +
                            txtItem1Quantity.Text + "</Item1Quantity>" +
                            "<Item1SubTotal>" + txtItem1SubTotal.Text +
                            "</Item1SubTotal>" + "<Item2Name>" +
                            cbxItem2Name.Text + "</Item2Name>" +
                            "<Item2UnitPrice>" + txtItem2UnitPrice.Text +
                            "</Item2UnitPrice>" + "<Item2Quantity>" +
                            txtItem2Quantity.Text + "</Item2Quantity>" +
                            "<Item2SubTotal>" + txtItem2SubTotal.Text +
                            "</Item2SubTotal>" + "<Item3Name>" +
                            cbxItem3Name.Text + "</Item3Name>" +
                            "<Item3UnitPrice>" + txtItem3UnitPrice.Text +
                            "</Item3UnitPrice>" + "<Item3Quantity>" +
                    txtItem3Quantity.Text + "</Item3Quantity>" +
                    "<Item3SubTotal>" + txtItem3SubTotal.Text +
                    "</Item3SubTotal>" + "<Item4Name>" +
                    cbxItem4Name.Text + "</Item4Name>" +
                    "<Item4UnitPrice>" + txtItem4UnitPrice.Text +
                    "</Item4UnitPrice>" + "<Item4Quantity>" +
                    txtItem4Quantity.Text + "</Item4Quantity>" +
                    "<Item4SubTotal>" + txtItem4SubTotal.Text +
                    "</Item4SubTotal>" + "<CleaningTotal>" +
                    txtCleaningTotal.Text + "</CleaningTotal>" +
                    "<TaxRate>" + txtTaxRate.Text + "</TaxRate>" +
                    "<TaxAmount>" + txtTaxAmount.Text + "</TaxAmount>" +
                    "<NetPrice>" + txtNetPrice.Text + "</NetPrice>";
    
            elmXML.InnerXml = strNewCleaningOrder;
            docCleaningOrders.DocumentElement.AppendChild(elmXML);
        }
    
        docCleaningOrders.Save(Filename);
    }
  2. Return to the form and click the unit price text box that corresponds to the pants
  3. Press and hold Shift
  4. Click the unit price text boxes for item 1, item 2, item 3, and item 4
  5. Click each text box under the Qty label
  6. Click the Tax Rate text box
  7. Release Shift
  8. In the Events section of the Properties window, double-click Leave and implement the event as follows:
     
    private void txtShirtsUnitPrice_Leave(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        double unitPriceShirts = 0.00, unitPricePants = 0.00,
               unitPriceItem1 = 0.00, unitPriceItem2 = 0.00,
               unitPriceItem3 = 0.00, unitPriceItem4 = 0.00;
               double subTotalShirts = 0.00, subTotalPants = 0.00,
               subTotalItem1 = 0.00, subTotalItem2 = 0.00,
               subTotalItem3 = 0.00, subTotalItem4 = 0.00;
        int qtyShirts = 1, qtyPants = 1, qtyItem1 = 1,
            qtyItem2 = 1, qtyItem3 = 1, qtyItem4 = 4;
        double cleaningTotal = 0.00, taxRate = 0.00,
               taxAmount = 0.00, netPrice = 0.00;
    
        // Retrieve the unit price of this item
        // Just in case the user types an invalid value,
        // we are using a try...catch
        try
        {
            unitPriceShirts = double.Parse(txtShirtsUnitPrice.Text);
        }
        catch (FormatException)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the price of " +
                            "shirts is not valid" +
                            "\nPlease try again");
            return;
        }
    
        // Retrieve the number of this item
        // Just in case the user types an invalid value,
        // we are using a try...catch
        try
        {
            qtyShirts = int.Parse(txtShirtsQuantity.Text);
        }
        catch (FormatException)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the number of " +
                            "shirts is not valid" +
                            "\nPlease try again");
            return;
        }
    
                try
                {
                    unitPricePants = double.Parse(txtPantsUnitPrice.Text);
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the price of " +
                                    "pants is not valid" +
                                    "\nPlease try again");
                    return;
                }
    
                try
                {
                    qtyPants = int.Parse(txtPantsQuantity.Text);
                }
                catch (FormatException)
                {
                    MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the number of " +
                                    "pants is not valid" +
                                    "\nPlease try again");
                    return;
                }
    
                if ((cbxItem1Name.Text == "None") ||
                (cbxItem1Name.Text == ""))
                {
                    qtyItem1 = 0;
                    unitPriceItem1 = 0.00;
                }
                else
                {
                    try
                    {
                        unitPriceItem1 = double.Parse(txtItem1UnitPrice.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the price is not valid" +
                                        "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
    
                    try
                    {
                        qtyItem1 = int.Parse(txtItem1Quantity.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered is not valid" +
                                        "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
                }
    
                if ((cbxItem2Name.Text == "None") ||
                (cbxItem2Name.Text == ""))
                {
                    qtyItem2 = 0;
                    unitPriceItem2 = 0.00;
                }
                else
                {
                    try
                    {
                        unitPriceItem2 = double.Parse(txtItem2UnitPrice.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for " +
                            "the price is not valid" +
                                        "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
    
                    try
                    {
                        qtyItem2 = int.Parse(txtItem2Quantity.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered is not valid" +
                                        "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
                }
    
                if ((cbxItem3Name.Text == "None") ||
                (cbxItem3Name.Text == ""))
                {
                    qtyItem3 = 0;
                    unitPriceItem3 = 0.00;
                }
                else
                {
                    try
                    {
                        unitPriceItem3 = double.Parse(txtItem3UnitPrice.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the " +
                            "price is not valid" +
                                        "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
    
                    try
                    {
                        qtyItem3 = int.Parse(txtItem3Quantity.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered is not valid" +
                                        "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
                }
    
                if ((cbxItem4Name.Text == "None") || (cbxItem4Name.Text == ""))
                {
                    qtyItem4 = 0;
                    unitPriceItem4 = 0.00;
                }
                else
                {
                    try
                    {
                        unitPriceItem4 = double.Parse(txtItem4UnitPrice.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered for the price is not valid" +
                                "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
                    try
                    {
                        qtyItem4 = int.Parse(txtItem4Quantity.Text);
                    }
                    catch (FormatException)
                    {
                        MessageBox.Show("The value you entered is not valid" +
                                "\nPlease try again");
                        return;
                    }
                }
    
                // Calculate the sub-total for this item
                subTotalShirts = qtyShirts * unitPriceShirts;
                subTotalPants = qtyPants * unitPricePants;
                subTotalItem1 = qtyItem1 * unitPriceItem1;
                subTotalItem2 = qtyItem2 * unitPriceItem2;
                subTotalItem3 = qtyItem3 * unitPriceItem3;
                subTotalItem4 = qtyItem4 * unitPriceItem4;
    
                // Calculate the total based on sub-totals
                cleaningTotal = subTotalShirts + subTotalPants + subTotalItem1 +
                        subTotalItem2 + subTotalItem3 + subTotalItem4;
    
                taxRate = double.Parse(txtTaxRate.Text);
                // Calculate the amount owed for the taxes
                taxAmount = cleaningTotal * taxRate / 100;
                // Add the tax amount to the total order
                netPrice = cleaningTotal + taxAmount;
    
                // Display the sub-total in the corresponding text box
                txtShirtsSubTotal.Text = subTotalShirts.ToString("F");
                txtPantsSubTotal.Text = subTotalPants.ToString("F");
                txtItem1SubTotal.Text = subTotalItem1.ToString("F");
                txtItem2SubTotal.Text = subTotalItem2.ToString("F");
                txtItem3SubTotal.Text = subTotalItem3.ToString("F");
                txtItem4SubTotal.Text = subTotalItem4.ToString("F");
    
                txtCleaningTotal.Text = cleaningTotal.ToString("F");
                txtTaxAmount.Text = taxAmount.ToString("F");
                txtNetPrice.Text = netPrice.ToString("F");
    
                SaveCleaningOrder();
    }
  9. Return to the form and double-click the Order Status combo box
  10. Implement the event as follows:
     
    private void cbxOrderStatus_SelectedIndexChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        SaveCleaningOrder();
    }
  11. Return to the form and double-click the Date Picked Up control
  12. Implement the event as follows:
     
    private void dtpDatePickedUp_ValueChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        SaveCleaningOrder();
    }
  13. Return to the form and double-click the Time Picked Up control
  14. Implement the event as follows:
     
    private void dtpTimePickedUp_ValueChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        SaveCleaningOrder();
    }
  15. Return to the form and double-click the Close button
  16. Implement its event as follows:
     
    private void btnClose_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        Close();
    }
  17. Execute the application
  18. Create a cleaning order
  19. Click New Cleaning Order and create a few more cleaning orders
  20. Close the form and return to your programming environment

Locating an Element Using a Tag Name

To assist you with finding a node, the XmlDocument class is equipped with the GetElementByTagName() method which is overloaded with two versions. One of the syntaxes used is:

public virtual XmlNodeList GetElementsByTagName(string name);

This method takes as argument a string. The string must be the name of a node. If at least one node that holds that name exists in the file, this method returns a collection of the nodes with that name. If there is no node with that name, the collection is returned empty and there is no exception thrown.

Here is an example of calling the method:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        // Get a reference to the root node
        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;

        // Create a list of nodes whose name is Title
        XmlNodeList lstTitles = xmlDoc.GetElementsByTagName("title");
}

Once you have a list of the nodes of a particular criterion, you can then act as you see fit. For example, For example, you can look for a particular node that holds a text of your choice.

Inserting an Element

 

Adding an Element as a Last Child

Once again, consider our Videos.xml file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
    <video>
	<title>The Distinguished Gentleman</title>
	<director>Jonathan Lynn</director>
	<length>112 Minutes</length>
	<format>DVD</format>
	<rating>R</rating>
    </video>
    <video>
	<title>Her Alibi</title>
	<director>Bruce Beresford</director>
	<length>94 Minutes</length>
	<format>DVD</format>
	<rating>PG-13</rating>
    </video>
    <video>
	<title>The Day After Tomorrow</title>
	<director>Roland Emmerich</director>
	<length>124 Minutes</length>
	<format>DVD</format>
	<rating>PG-13</rating>
    </video>
    <video>
	<title>Other People's Money</title>
	<director>Alan Brunstein</director>
	<length>114 Minutes</length>
	<format>VHS</format>
	<rating>PG-13</rating>
    </video>
</videos>

Imagine you want to add a list of actors of the Her Alibi video. The first action to take is to locate the video, which you can do by calling the XmlDocument.GetElementsByTagName() method applied to a collection of nodes whose names are video. From this list of nodes, you can look for the node whose value is "Her Alibi". Once you have found this element, get a reference to its parent. Then add the new node as a child its parent. This can be done as follows:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        // Get a reference to the root node
        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;

        // Create a list of nodes whose name is Title
        XmlNodeList lstTitles = xmlDoc.GetElementsByTagName("title");

        // Now you can check each node of the list
        foreach (XmlNode node in lstTitles)
        {
            if (node.InnerText == "Her Alibi")
            {
                // Create an element named Actors
                XmlElement elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actors");
                XmlNode elmParent = node.ParentNode;
                // Add a new element named Actors to it
                elmParent.AppendChild(elmNew);
                xmlDoc.Save(Filename);
            }
        }
    }
}

This would produce:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
  . . .
  <video>
    <title>Her Alibi</title>
    <director>Bruce Beresford</director>
    <length>94 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>PG-13</rating>
    <actors />
  </video>
  . . .
</videos>

This code creates an empty element. If you want to create an element that includes a value, create its text and add that text to the node. Here is an example:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        // Get a reference to the root node
        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;

        // Create a list of nodes whose name is Title
        XmlNodeList lstTitles = xmlDoc.GetElementsByTagName("title");

        // Now you can check each node of the list
        foreach (XmlNode node in lstTitles)
        {
            // When you get to a node, look for the element's value
            // If you find an element whose value is Her Alibi
            if (node.InnerText == "The Distinguished Gentleman")
            {
                // Create an element named Category
                XmlElement elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("category");
                // Create the text of the new element
                XmlText txtCatetory = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("Comedy");
                // Get a reference to the parent of the node we have found
                XmlNode elmParent = node.ParentNode;
                // Add the new element to the node we found
                elmParent.AppendChild(elmNew);
                // Specify the text of the new node
                elmParent.LastChild.AppendChild(txtCatetory);
                // Save the file
                xmlDoc.Save(Filename);
            }
        }
    }
}

This would produce:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
  <video>
    <title>The Distinguished Gentleman</title>
    <director>Jonathan Lynn</director>
    <length>112 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>R</rating>
    <category>Comedy</category>
  </video>
  . . .
</videos>

Using the same approach combined with what we learned about adding an item, you can add a new element that itself has child nodes. Here is an example:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        // Get a reference to the root node
        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;

        // Create a list of nodes whose name is Title
        XmlNodeList lstTitles = xmlDoc.GetElementsByTagName("title");

        // Now you can check each node of the list
        foreach (XmlNode node in lstTitles)
        {
            // When you get to a node, look for the element's value
            // If you find an element whose value is The Day After Tomorrow
            if (node.InnerText == "The Day After Tomorrow")
            {
                // Create an element named Actors
                XmlElement elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actors");
                // Get a reference to the parent of the node we have found
                XmlNode elmVideo = node.ParentNode;
                // Add the new element to the node we found
                elmVideo.AppendChild(elmNew);

                // Create an element as a child of the new element
                // Specify its name as Actor
                elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actor");
                // Create the text of the new element
                XmlText txtActor = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("Dennis Quaid");
                // Add the new Actor element to the Actors node
                elmVideo.LastChild.AppendChild(elmNew);
                // Specify the text of the new node
                elmVideo.LastChild.LastChild.AppendChild(txtActor);

                // In the same way, add the other Actor nodes
                elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actor");
                txtActor = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("Jake Gyllenhaal");
                elmVideo.LastChild.AppendChild(elmNew);
                elmVideo.LastChild.LastChild.AppendChild(txtActor);

                elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actor");
                txtActor = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("Emmy Rossum");
                elmVideo.LastChild.AppendChild(elmNew);
                elmVideo.LastChild.LastChild.AppendChild(txtActor);

                elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actor");
                txtActor = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("Dash Mihok");
                elmVideo.LastChild.AppendChild(elmNew);
                elmVideo.LastChild.LastChild.AppendChild(txtActor);

                // Save the file
                xmlDoc.Save(Filename);
            }
        }
    }
}

This would produce:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
  . . .
  <video>
    <title>The Day After Tomorrow</title>
    <director>Roland Emmerich</director>
    <length>124 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>PG-13</rating>
    <actors>
      <actor>Dennis Quaid</actor>
      <actor>Jake Gyllenhaal</actor>
      <actor>Emmy Rossum</actor>
      <actor>Dash Mihok</actor>
    </actors>
  </video>
</videos>

You can also insert one or more elements as children of an existing node after locating that node. Here is an example:

XML File

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
  <video>
    <title>The Distinguished Gentleman</title>
    <director>Jonathan Lynn</director>
    <length>112 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>R</rating>
    <category>Comedy</category>
  </video>
  <video>
    <title>Her Alibi</title>
    <director>Bruce Beresford</director>
    <length>94 Mins</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>PG-13</rating>
    <actors />
  </video>
</videos>

Code Fragment:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        // Get a reference to the root node
        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;

        // Create a list of nodes whose name is Title
        XmlNodeList lstTitles = xmlDoc.GetElementsByTagName("title");

        // Now you can check each node of the list
        foreach (XmlNode node in lstTitles)
        {
            // When you get to a node, look for the element's value
            // If you find an element whose value is Her Alibi
            if (node.InnerText == "Her Alibi")
            {
                // Get a reference to the video node that is 
                // the parent of the video titled Her Alibi
                XmlNode elmVideo = node.ParentNode;

                // Create a list of the child nodes of the Her alibi video
                XmlNodeList lstActors = elmVideo.ChildNodes;

                // Visit each item of the collection
                // looking for an element named Actors
                foreach (XmlNode nodActor in lstActors)
                {
                    // If you find an element named Actors
                    if (nodActor.Name == "actors")
                    {
                        // Create a new element named Actor
                        // Specify its name as Actor
                        XmlElement elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actor");
                        // Create the text of the new element
                        XmlText txtActor = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("Tom Selleck");
                        // Add the new Actor element to the Actors node
                        elmVideo.LastChild.AppendChild(elmNew);
                        // Specify the text of the new node
                        elmVideo.LastChild.LastChild.AppendChild(txtActor);

                        // Add other Actor nodes
                        elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actor");
                        txtActor = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("Paulina Porizkova");
                        elmVideo.LastChild.AppendChild(elmNew);
                        elmVideo.LastChild.LastChild.AppendChild(txtActor);

                        elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("actor");
                        txtActor = xmlDoc.CreateTextNode("William Daniels");
                        elmVideo.LastChild.AppendChild(elmNew);
                        elmVideo.LastChild.LastChild.AppendChild(txtActor);

                        // Save the file
                        xmlDoc.Save(Filename);

                        // Stop, in this example, we don't expect another Actors node
                        break;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

This would produce:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
  <video>
    <title>The Distinguished Gentleman</title>
    <director>Jonathan Lynn</director>
    <length>112 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>R</rating>
    <category>Comedy</category>
  </video>
  <video>
    <title>Her Alibi</title>
    <director>Bruce Beresford</director>
    <length>94 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>PG-13</rating>
    <actors>
      <actor>Tom Selleck</actor>
      <actor>Paulina Porizkova</actor>
      <actor>William Daniels</actor>
    </actors>
  </video>
</videos>

Inserting an Element Referencing a Sibling

Instead of simply adding a new node at the end of child nodes, you can specify any other position you want. For example, you may want the new node to precede an existing child node. To support this operation, the XmlNode class provides the InsertBefore() method. Its syntax is:

public virtual XmlNode InsertBefore(XmlNode newChild, XmlNode refChild);

The first argument of this method is the new node that will be added. The second argument is the sibling that will succeed the new node. Consider the following version of our Videos.xml file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
    <video>
      	<title>The Distinguished Gentleman</title>
      	<director>Jonathan Lynn</director>
      	<length>112 Minutes</length>
      	<format>DVD</format>
      	<rating>R</rating>
      	<category>Comedy</category>
    </video>
    <video>
	<title>Fatal Attraction</title>
	<director>Adrian Lyne</director>
	<length>119 Minutes</length>
	<format>DVD</format>
	<rating>R</rating>
    </video>
</videos>

Imagine you want to create a new category element below the director element whose name is Adrian Lyne. You can first get a list of videos. Inside of each video, check the nodes and find out whether the video has a director node whose text is Adrian Lyne. Once you find that node, you can add the new element after it. Here is an example:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        // Get a reference to the root node
        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;

        // Create a list of the videos
        XmlNodeList lstVideos = xmlDoc.GetElementsByTagName("video");

        // visit each video
        foreach (XmlNode node in lstVideos)
        {
            // Within a video, create a list of its children
            XmlNodeList lstChildren = node.ChildNodes;

            // Visit each child node
            foreach (XmlNode dir in lstChildren)
            {
                // If the child node is (a director and its name is) Adrian Lyne
                if (dir.InnerText == "Adrian Lyne")
                {
                    // Create an element named Category
                    XmlElement elmNew = xmlDoc.CreateElement("category");
                    // Specify the text of the new element
                    elmNew.InnerText = "Drama";

                    // Insert the new node below the Adrian Lyne node Director
                    node.InsertAfter(elmNew, dir);

                    // Save the file
                    xmlDoc.Save(Filename);

                    // Stop
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

This would produce:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<videos>
  <video>
    <title>The Distinguished Gentleman</title>
    <director>Jonathan Lynn</director>
    <length>112 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>R</rating>
    <category>Comedy</category>
  </video>
  <video>
    <title>Fatal Attraction</title>
    <director>Adrian Lyne</director>
    <category>Drama</category>
    <length>119 Minutes</length>
    <format>DVD</format>
    <rating>R</rating>
  </video>
</videos>

In the same way, you can insert a new node after a child of a child (or of a child of a child of a child) of any node.

If you want to new node to be positioned after an existing child node, you can call the XmlNode.InsertAfter() method. Its syntax is:

public virtual XmlNode InsertAfter(XmlNode newChild, XmlNode refChild);

Deleting Elements

 

Deleting an Element

If you have a node you don't want or don't need anymore in the file, you can delete it. To delete a node, the XmlNode class provides the RemoveChild() method. Its syntax is:

public virtual XmlNode RemoveChild(XmlNode oldChild);

This method takes as argument the node to delete. If the node exists, it would be deleted and the method would return the node that was deleted. If the node does not exist, nothing would happen. To effectively use this method, you should first locate the particular node you want to delete. You can look for it using any of the logics we have applied so far. Once you find the node, you can then delete it. Imagine you want to delete a node whose name is Director and whose value is Bruce Beresford. Here is an example of calling this method to perform the operation:

private void btnDocument_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    string Filename = "videos.xml";
    XmlDocument xmlDoc = new XmlDocument();

    if (File.Exists(Filename))
    {
        xmlDoc.Load(Filename);

        // Get a reference to the root node
        XmlElement elmRoot = xmlDoc.DocumentElement;

        // Create a list of the videos
        XmlNodeList lstVideos = xmlDoc.GetElementsByTagName("video");

        // visit each video
        foreach (XmlNode node in lstVideos)
        {
            // Within a video, get a list of its children
            XmlNodeList lstChildren = node.ChildNodes;

            // Visit each child node
            foreach (XmlNode dir in lstChildren)
            {
                // If the child node is Bruce Beresford
                if (dir.InnerText == "Adrian Lyne")
                {
                    node.RemoveChild(dir);

                    // Save the file
                    xmlDoc.Save(Filename);

                    // Stop
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Clearing an Element of its Children

To delete all child nodes of a node, you can call the XmlNode.RemoveAll() method. Its syntax is:

public virtual void RemoveAll();

When called, this method will remove all child nodes, if any, of their parent node.


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